Geschiedenis Podcasts

Noordelijke Spoorweg van Frankrijk - Geschiedenis

Noordelijke Spoorweg van Frankrijk - Geschiedenis


Nord-Pas-de-Calais

Nord-Pas-de-Calais (Franse uitspraak: [nɔʁ pɑ d(ə) kalɛ] ( luister ) ) is een voormalig administratief gebied van Frankrijk. Sinds 1 januari 2016 maakt het deel uit van de nieuwe regio Hauts-de-France. [2] Het bestond uit de departementen Nord en Pas-de-Calais. Nord-Pas-de-Calais grenst aan het Kanaal (west), de Noordzee (noordwest), België (noord en oost) en Picardië (zuid). Het grootste deel van de regio maakte ooit deel uit van de historische (Zuidelijke) Nederlanden, maar werd tussen 1477 en 1678 geleidelijk een deel van Frankrijk, vooral tijdens het bewind van koning Lodewijk XIV. De historische Franse provincies die voorafgingen aan Nord-Pas-de-Calais zijn Artois, Frans-Vlaanderen, Frans Henegouwen en (gedeeltelijk) Picardië. Deze provinciale aanduidingen worden nog steeds veelvuldig gebruikt door de inwoners.

Met zijn 330,8 inwoners per km 2 op iets meer dan 12.414 km 2 is het een dichtbevolkte regio, met ongeveer 4,1 miljoen inwoners, 7% van de totale bevolking van Frankrijk, waarmee het de vierde meest bevolkte regio van het land is, waarvan 83% woont in stedelijke gemeenschappen. Het administratieve centrum en de grootste stad is Lille. De op een na grootste stad is Calais, dat dient als een belangrijk continentaal economisch/transportknooppunt met Dover van Groot-Brittannië op 42 kilometer (26 mijl) afstand. Dit maakt Nord-Pas-de-Calais de dichtstbijzijnde continentale Europese verbinding met het eiland Groot-Brittannië. Andere grote steden zijn Valenciennes, Lens, Douai, Béthune, Duinkerken, Maubeuge, Boulogne, Arras, Cambrai en Saint-Omer. De regio is te zien in tal van films, waaronder: Bienvenue chez les Ch'tis.


Spoorweggeschiedenis en behoud - VS en Canada

American Steam Railroad Preservation Association - Non-profit educatieve organisatie die zich toelegt op het behoud, de weergave en het gebruik van historische spoorweguitrusting, waaronder Frisco-stoomlocomotief # 1352

American Time Table and Train Order System, The - Geschiedenis van de sleutelrol van de telegraaf in een uniek Noord-Amerikaans spoorwegsysteem

Amtrak Historical Society - Behoud van de geschiedenis van Amtrak

Vereniging van Spoorwegmusea - Leidt in de bevordering van spoorwegerfgoed door middel van educatie en belangenbehartiging

Veilingen op eBay - 100.000+ verzamelobjecten en railroadiana-items, waaronder vintage advertenties, kaarten, dienstregelingen, tickets, aandelencertificaten, horloges, klokken, borden, lantaarns, gebruiksvoorwerpen, sloten, kleding en meer

Birney Safety Car Museum - Geschiedenis, foto's en modellen van de Birney single-truck trolley ontwikkeld in de jaren 1910

Bridgehunter.com - Database van historische bruggen en tunnels in de Verenigde Staten

Bruggen, stations en tunnels - Gids voor de vroegste, langste, hoogste en grootste spoorwegconstructies

Budd-RDC.org - Foto's, geschiedenis en actuele bedrijfsinformatie over Budd Rail Diesel Cars (RDC's)

Canada per spoor - Organisatie van Canadese toeristische spoorwegen, musea, historische verenigingen, touroperators, historische treinstations en erfgoedsites

Canadian Railroad Historical Association (CRHA) - Behoud en verspreiding van informatie over spoorwegerfgoed in Canada, waarbij veel afdelingen hun eigen bijeenkomsten, projecten en activiteiten organiseren

Canadian Railway Music - Lijst van Canadese spoorwegmuziek, waaronder klassieke, folk- en countryliedjes

Canadian Street Railways - Geschiedenis van straatspoorwegen en interlokale elektrische spoorwegen in Canada

Carknocker Railroad Stories - Verhalen en foto's door spoorwegcarmen

Carolwood Pacific Historical Society - Gewijd aan het behoud van de persoonlijke spoorwegerfenis van Walt Disney

Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum - Geschiedenis van de Transcontinental Railroad en het verbinden van de Central en Union Pacific Railroads op 10 mei 1869 op Promontory Summit, Utah

Chapel Cars of America - Ongeveer dertien kerken-op-rails die de spoorwegen naar het westen volgden van 1890 tot de jaren 1940 en het evangelie en sacramenten brachten aan de mensen die langs het spoor woonden

Klassieke Streamliners - Artikelen en foto's over vintage passagierstreinen, privétreinstellen, treinreizen, toeristentreinen en meer

Conrail Cabins & Cabooses - Wissel informatie uit over Conrail's vloot van hutten en cabooses

Bedrijfsgeschiedenis van spoorwegen in Noord-Amerika - Bedrijfskaarten (familie) voor het onderzoeken van een bepaalde familie of individuele namen van spoorwegen

Dan's Wigwag-site - Geschiedenis, foto's en locaties van overgebleven wigwag flagman-overwegsignalen in de VS

Danger Ahead: Historic Railway Disasters - Een onderzoek naar belangrijke spoorwegongevallen vanaf de vroegste dagen van het spoorvervoer tot nu

Diesels From Schenectady - Toegewijd aan Alcos, zowel vroeger als nu met foto's en informatie

Driving the Last Spike - Geschiedenis uit het Museum van de stad San Francisco

Early Railroads - Records en primeurs voor de aanleg en exploitatie van spoorwegen in de VS en wereldwijd

F40PH Preservation Society - Bewaart geschiedenis en artefacten met betrekking tot Amtrak's F40PH diesellocomotieven

Fallen Flags and Other Railroad Photos - Uitgebreide fotogalerijen van gevallen vlaggen in heel Noord-Amerika

FallnFlags - Pre Burlington Northern-locomotieffoto's, met name over de Great Northern Railroad, inclusief Great Northern Sky Blue en Orange-verfschema's, Northern Pacific, Spokane Portland en Seattle, en Burlington

Forgotten Railways - Lopend project om spoorverwaarlozingen te onderzoeken, op te sporen en in kaart te brengen

Vrienden van de Burlington Northern Railroad - Historisch genootschap gericht op de BN en BNSF

Geared Steam Locomotive Works - Behoud en promotie van informatie over in Noord-Amerika gebouwde stoomlocomotieven, waaronder Shay, Heisler, Climax, Byers, Gilbert, Dunkirk, Willamette, Davenport, Baldwin, Bell en meer

International Society for the Preservation of Women in Railroading - Reizende tentoonstelling biedt een educatieve kijk in de wereld van vrouwelijke spoorwegen

Iron & Steel Industry Special Interest Group - Groep voor diegenen die geïnteresseerd zijn in de spoorwegen van staalfabrieken en ook de staalfabrieken zelf zowel prototypefans als modelbouwers zijn welkom

John W. Barriger III National Railroad Library - Speciale bibliotheek in de St. Louis Mercantile Library aan de Universiteit van Missouri - St. Louis

Johnson Farebox Company - Geschiedenis en foto's van Johnson en Cleveland fareboxes gevonden in vele trolleys, trams en bussen tot de jaren 1960

Locomotive Records - Gids voor de vroegste, snelste, zwaarste, grootste en krachtigste stoomlocomotieven

Logging Railroads of North America - Lijst van alle bekende spoorwegactiviteiten in Noord-Amerika

Merchant Navy Locomotive Preservation Society - Toegewijd aan de activiteiten van de MNLPS, eigenaren en exploitanten van MN Class loco 35028 "Clan line"

Merci Train - Foto's en geschiedenis van de trein met 49 wagons vol geschenken, geschonken door Frankrijk aan de VS in 1948

Mike's Railway History - Uitgebreide geschiedenis van de wereldspoorwegen tot het midden van de jaren dertig door Michael Irlam

Multimodalways Railroad Archives - Verzameling van gescande kaarten, spoorkaarten en verschillende documenten van vroegere en huidige Noord-Amerikaanse spoorwegen

National Railway Historical Society (NRHS) - Officiële site van de Amerikaanse nationale historische organisatie

North American Railcar Operators Association - Gewijd aan het behoud en de veilige, legale werking van spoorwegmaterieel, van oudsher gebruikt voor het onderhoud van wegen

North American Railroad Family Trees - Chronologie van de voorgangers van de North American Railroad

Northern Pacific Railway Historical Association - Gewijd aan het behoud van de geschiedenis van Amerika's eerste noordelijke transcontinentale spoorweg

Old Time Trains - Behoud van het Canadese spoorwegerfgoed met artikelen, verhalen, foto's en meer

Pacific Railway Act, The - Een wet uit 1862 om te helpen bij de aanleg van een spoor- en telegraaflijn van de rivier de Missouri naar de Stille Oceaan

PCC Car - Niet zo standaard - Geschiedenis en foto's van PCC-auto's

PCC Cars - Foto's en informatie over PCC auto's door Gerard Scheltens

Pennsy Railcar Restorations LLC - Biedt on-site en off-site advies voor de aankoop, het transport en de restauratie van treinwagons

Preserved North American Electric Railway Cars Roster - Doorzoekbare database van bewaarde Noord-Amerikaanse elektrische treinwagons met autospecificaties, eigendomsgeschiedenis en foto's

Pullman Library - Meer dan een miljoen tekeningen, originele specificaties, correspondentie, foto's en documentatie met betrekking tot Pullman en Pullman-Standard passagiers- en goederenwagons Illinois Railway Museum, Union, Illinois

Spoorweg- en tramhistorische markeringen - Lijst van spoorweggerelateerde bermmarkeringen en andere permanente markeringen met tekst, foto's, kaarten, gedetailleerde locatie-informatie en commentaar

Railroad Car History - Publiceert elektronische boeken over treinwagons en aanverwante onderwerpen

Railroad Evangelistic Association - Niet-confessionele, niet-partijgebonden christelijke spoorweggemeenschap

RailRoad Genealogical Society - Gewijd aan het lokaliseren, samenstellen en bewaren van elk record met betrekking tot de werknemers van de historische spoorwegen van Amerika

Railroad Heritage Blog - Behandelt zowel moderne als vintage spoorwegen, met rondleidingen over apparatuur, vintage foto's en nieuws over conservering

Railroad Maps Archive - Historische spoorwegkaarten uit de hele VS, gratis verkrijgbaar bij de University of Alabama

Railroad Maps Collection - Meer dan 600 spoorwegkaarten van 1828-1900 uit de archieven van de Library of Congress

Spoorwegbijnamen - Gids voor bijnamen gegeven aan vroegere en huidige Noord-Amerikaanse spoorwegen

Spoorwegpolitie - Promoot de geschiedenis van spoorwegpolitie

Railroad Signal Site - Gedetailleerde foto's en beschrijvingen van zoeklicht, kleurlicht, wig wag en gyralight spoorwegsignalen

Spoorwegsignalisatie en communicatie - Foto's en informatie over een verscheidenheid aan spoorwegseinen en communicatieapparatuur

Railroad Station Historical Society, Inc - Compilaties van bestaande spoorweg- / spoorwegconstructies in de VS en Canada, historisch onderzoek naar depots, referenties over spoorwegconstructies en meer

Railroad Station Home Page, The - Toegewijd aan de architectuur en geschiedenis van treinstations over de hele wereld

Spoorwegverhalen - Verzameling van spoorwegverhalen uit de late 19e en vroege 20e eeuw

Railroad.net - Tientallen railfanforums, ansichtkaarten, prototype fotogalerij en meer

RailroadRob.net - Oude ansichtkaarten en documenten van de spoorweg, geschiedenis van de tramdienst in Grand Rapids MI, en een gids voor hotels en resorts die van bijzonder belang zijn voor railfans en treinreizigers

Railway & Locomotive Historical Society - Bevordert onderzoek en stimuleert het behoud van documentatie die relevant is voor bedrijfsgeschiedenis, financiën, arbeidsgeschiedenis, biografie en technologie

Railway Mail Service - Geschiedenis van postbezorging per spoor, van de USPS

Railway Preservation News - Online tijdschrift over spoorweggeschiedenis en -behoud, onder redactie van Bob Yarger

Spoorwegen in muziek - Geschiedenis van spoorwegen in muziek, door Philip Scowcroft

Railways of Canada Archives - De geschiedenis van de Canadese spoorwegen bewaren met tientallen artikelen en foto's

RailwaySurgery.org - Bewaart de geschiedenis van spoorwegchirurgen en ziekenhuizen, en informeert het publiek over hun werk en bijdragen aan de geneeskunde

Zeldzame kaartcollectie - Historische spoorwegkaarten online verkrijgbaar bij de Universiteit van Georgia

Record Railroad Routes - Gids voor de hoogste, steilste en langste spoorweggraden wereldwijd

Richard Leonard's Rail Archive - Foto's en commentaar over stoomlocomotieven die in de jaren vijftig op Noord-Amerikaanse spoorwegen actief waren, waaronder de CB&Q, CPR, GTW, IC, NKP, NYC en UP

Richard's Parlor Car - Toegewijd aan de geschiedenis van verschillende Noord-Amerikaanse personenauto's, voornamelijk Canadees, CNR, CPR en enkele Amerikaanse

Richard's Planet Sleeping-Car - Historische informatie en gegevens over verschillende slaap- en melkstalwagens van Canadian National, Canadian Pacific en Pullman in Canada, de VS en Mexico

RRSignal.com - Informatie en foto's van signalen, CTC-apparatuur, relais en meer

Semaphores.com - Uitgebreide lijst met levende en museale semaforen, foto's, semafoorgeschiedenis en meer

Slim Rails - Foto's en informatie over smalspoorbanen, waaronder Carson & Colorado, Durango & Silverton, East Tennessee & Western North Carolina en East Broad Top

St. Nicholas Mountain - Een van de zes observatiewagens met hoog raam gebouwd door American Car & Foundry voor de Mid-Century Empire Builder, die nu wordt gerestaureerd voor privétreinritten

Steam in the Americas - Behandelt de vooruitzichten voor werkende en bijna werkende stoom in Amerika, en belicht enkele bewaarde stoomlocomotieven en relikwieën

SteamLocomotive.com - Uitgebreide gids voor overlevende stoomlocomotieven in Noord-Amerika, inclusief motoren die momenteel in bedrijf zijn en worden gerestaureerd

Streamliner Memories - Spoorwegbrochures, advertenties, dienstregelingen, menu's en tickets uit de jaren 50 en 60

Streamliner Schema's - Schema's van de streamliners van het midden van de jaren dertig tot het einde van de jaren zestig

Tap Lines - Biedt gescande spoorwegboeken voor historici en modelbouwers, inclusief officiële gidsen, uitrustingsregisters en lijsten van locomotiefbouwers op cd en dvd

Technical Society for Rail Operations Safety & Signalling - Focus op veiligheid en signalering omvat een lijst van spoorwegnamen, wrak-/incidentinformatie en historische informatie over signalering en overwegingen

The Birney Car - Online boek met roosters en geschiedenis van trams per staat

De Caboose-pagina - Foto's van cabooses en informatie over het gebruik ervan

The Diesel Shop - Uitgebreide bron voor aandrijfkrachtroosters en locomotieven van de eerste generatie

The Yard Limit: American Diesel Switchers - Spottersgids, fotogalerij, nieuws en meer

Treinfilms - Gids voor meer dan 130 klassieke treinfilms, vele nu zeldzaam en uitverkocht, inclusief details over filmlocaties en aanbevolen spoorwegen, stations en uitrusting

Treinrecords - Gids voor de snelste, langste en zwaarste treinen in de geschiedenis van de VS en de wereld

Treinwrakken - Gids voor de vroegste, dodelijkste en vreemdste treinwrakken, crashes, ontsporingen en ongevallen

Transcontinental Railroad, The - Geschiedenis van de leiders, oprichters en arbeiders van de Central Pacific Railroad

Transportplanning en treindispatching - Historische en technische informatie over treindispatching, -planning en -beheer

Trolley Cars Dot Com - Restauratieprojecten, conservering en meer

Waargebeurd verhaal van Casey Jones, The - Gepubliceerd in "Erie Railroad Magazine" (april 1928)

Union Pacific Historical Society - Behoud van de geschiedenis van de Union Pacific Railroad vanaf het begin in 1862 tot de operatie zoals deze nu is

Union Pacific History & Photos - Geschiedenis van de Union Pacific (UP) Railroad, historisch spoorwegmaterieel en foto's

Vagel Keller's Industrial Heritage Homepage - Historische en modelleringsinformatie over de Amerikaanse kolen-, ijzer- en staalindustrie en de spoorwegindustrie


Noordelijke Spoorweg van Frankrijk - Geschiedenis

    (d-maps.com)
  • Atlas des colonies françaises, protectorats et territoria sous mandat de la France, 1934 (G. Grandidier)
  • Atlas historique de la France depuis César jusqu'8217à nos jours (Auguste Longnon, 1907) Collectie (Library of Congress) (American Geographical Society Library Digital Map Collection) (David Rumsey Map Collection) (WHKMLA) (Gallica - Bibliothèque nationale de France) (Columbia University) (oldmapsonline.org)
    (Putzgers Historischer Weltatlas, 1923) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (R. Lane Poole, historische atlas van modern Europa, ca.1900) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (R. Lane Poole, historische atlas van modern Europa , ca.1900) (Putzgers Historischer Weltatlas, 1905)
  • Frankrijk omstreeks 1035 (William Shepherd, Historische Atlas, 1926) (R. Lane Poole, Historische Atlas. c.1900) (R. Lane Poole, Historische Atlas. c.1900) (Droysens. 1886) (William Shepherd, Historische Atlas, 1926)
  • Frankrijk in de dertiende eeuw (R. Lane Poole, historische atlas van modern Europa, ca.1900) (R. Lane Poole, historische atlas van modern Europa, ca.1900) (R. Lane Poole, historische atlas van modern Europa, ca.1900) (William Shepherd, historische atlas, 1926) (Muir'8217s historische atlas, 1911) (Robert Labberton, nieuwe historische atlas en algemene geschiedenis, 1886) (R. Labberton, nieuwe historische atlas. 1886) (Muir'8217s historische atlas, 1911) (William Shepherd, historische atlas, 1911) (William Shepherd, historische atlas, 1926 ) (Robert Labberton, New Historical Atlas and General History, 1886) (Charles Colbeck, The Public Schools Historical Atlas, 1905)
  • La France en 1461 (à la mort de Charles VII) (Mirot, Manuel de géographie historique de la France, 1947) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (The British Library) (Robert Labberton, New Historical Atlas and General History, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Muir'8217s Historical Atlas, 1911) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886 ) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Lane Poole, Historical Atlas of Modern Europe, ca.1900) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1926) (J. Bartholomew, A Literary & Historical Atlas of Europe, 1910) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Robert Labberton, nieuwe historische atlas. 1886) (Robert Labberton, nieuwe historische atlas. 1886) (Cambridge moderne geschiedenisatlas, 1912) (Cambridge moderne geschiedenisatlas, 1912) (Cambridge moderne geschiedenisatlas, 1912) ( William Shepherd, Historische Atlas, 1926) (William Shepherd, Historische Atlas, 1926) (William Shepherd, Historische Atlas, 1926) (William Shepherd, Historische Atlas, 1926) (William Shepherd, Historische Atlas, 1926) (William Shepherd, Historische Atlas , 1926) (Cambridge Modern) Geschiedenis Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Moderne Geschiedenis Atlas, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Cambridge Moderne Geschiedenis Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Moderne Geschiedenis Atlas, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Cambridge Moderne Geschiedenis Atlas , 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge. 1912) (Cambridge Atlas Modern History, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Cambridge Atlas Modern History, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (US Holocaust Memorial Museum)

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Atlas van Frankrijk

La Franse Republiek à la suite d'un long processus d'évolution étalé sur près de 2 000 ans d'histoire, est un État d'Europe dont le territoire métropolitain est situé en Europe de l'Ouest. La France est – parmi tous les grands États européens – le plus anciennement constitué, autour d’un domaine royal initialement centre sur l’Île-de-France, sa capitale étant Paris.

Frans es un país de l'Eurpa occidentala, es la pàtria del pòble francés en forma un estat. França es, demèst totes los grands Estats europencs, lo mai ancianament constituat, a l'entorn d'un domeni reial inicialament sus l'Illa-de-França, que sa capitala istorica e culturala es uèi Parijs.

La Republiek Francesa, is een land van Europa en een territorium metropolità del qual és situat en l'Europa de l'oest. França és - dins el conjunt dels països més grans d'Europa - el més antigament constituit, a l'entorn d'un domini reial inicialment centrat en l'illa de França, la seva capital és Parijs. Catalunya-nord esdevé francesa el 1659 amb el tractat dels Pirineus (Tractat no oficial perquè no ha estat mai aprovat by les Corts Catalanes de Barcelona).

Frankriich isch e Land, wo im weschtliche Europa leit. Er is een ebbis meh wie sächzig Millione Ywohner un isch 543.965 km² groot un 's isch nooch Rusland en dr Oekraïne es dritt gröscht Landplezier Europa. Es Elsass isch e Stickel fun Frankriich un d'r Sproch, wo mer spricht, isch Elsässerditsch.

De Franse Republiek is een land waarvan het grootstedelijke grondgebied in West-Europa ligt en dat ook verschillende overzeese eilanden en gebieden in andere continenten omvat. Grootstedelijk Frankrijk strekt zich uit van de Middellandse Zee tot het Kanaal en de Noordzee, en van de Rijn tot de Atlantische Oceaan. Frankrijk wordt begrensd door ► België (► Vlaanderen en ► Wallonië), ► Luxemburg, ► Duitsland, ► Zwitserland, ► Italië (met ► Valle d'Aosta), ► Monaco, ► Andorra, en ► Spanje (met ► Catalonië, ► Navarra en ► Baskenland. In sommige van zijn overzeese departementen deelt Frankrijk ook landgrenzen met ► Brazilië, ► Suriname en ► Sint Maarten (een land dat deel uitmaakt van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden). Frankrijk is ook verbonden met het ► Verenigd Koninkrijk via het Kanaal Tunnel, die onder het Kanaal doorloopt.
Frankrijk omvat ook de overzeese regio's/departementen van ► Guadeloupe, ► Frans Guyana, ► Martinique en ► Réunion, de overzeese gemeenschap/regio van ► Corsica, evenals ► Frans-Polynesië, overzees land, ► Nieuw-Caledonië, entiteit sui generis, ► Mayotte, departementale collectiviteit en de andere overzeese gemeenschappen van ► Saint-Barthélemy, ► Saint-Martin, ► Saint-Pierre en Miquelon, ► Wallis en Futuna, evenals de onbewoonde gebieden van ► Clipperton Island en de ► Franse Zuidelijke en Antarctische wateren landt.


Railroaders in Olive Drab: de militaire spoorwegdienst in WO II

In juli 1861 demonstreerde de Zuidelijke brigadegeneraal Joseph E. Johnston op dramatische wijze het belang van spoorwegen in moderne oorlogsvoering toen hij 12.000 troepen per spoor verplaatste van Piedmont Station (nu Delaplane), Virginia, naar Manassas Junction, een afstand van ongeveer vijftig mijl, om de Zuidelijke troepen verzamelden zich ten zuidwesten van Washington, DC. De verhuizing nam slechts ongeveer een derde van de tijd in beslag die de troepen nodig zouden hebben om die afstand door te marcheren, en ze kwamen klaar om te vechten. De versterkingen verrasten de troepen van de Unie en droegen bij aan de overwinning van de rebellen op 21 juli tijdens de Eerste Slag bij Bull Run. Het was slechts de eerste poging om tijdens de burgeroorlog grote aantallen soldaten per spoor te vervoeren. Spoorwegen waren zo belangrijk dat het Ministerie van Oorlog de U.S. Military Railroads en het Railroad Construction Corps organiseerde om spoorlijnen te repareren, te exploiteren en te onderhouden terwijl het leger van de Unie confederaal gebied binnentrok. Beide organisaties waren sterk afhankelijk van ervaren spoorwegbestuurders en ingenieurs die werden aangesteld als vrijwillige officieren en werkten onder toezicht van de kwartiermeester-generaal van het leger van de Unie, generaal-majoor Montgomery C. Meigs.

Het concept van het in dienst nemen van ervaren spoorwegmannen in het leger werd in de Eerste Wereldoorlog voortgezet onder auspiciën van de Militaire Spoorwegdienst (MRS) van het Corps of Engineers. Regelmatige kolonels van het leger voerden het bevel over genieregimenten die waren georganiseerd als spoorwegeenheden. Professionele spoorwegarbeiders die als luitenant-kolonels werden aangesteld, dienden als regimentsdirecteur. Tussen de Eerste en Tweede Wereldoorlog stelde het Corps of Engineers vast dat het regiment niet de beste organisatie was voor het exploiteren van spoorwegen. Engineer Reserve-officieren die in hun civiele loopbaan spoorwegmannen waren, hielpen bij het ontwerpen van geschikte eenheden voor militaire spoorwegoperaties. Ze besloten om het laagste organisatorische element van de Amerikaanse spoorwegen, divisies, als basis van de nieuwe organisatie te gebruiken. In een spoorwegafdeling had een inspecteur de verantwoordelijkheid om hoofdlijnen, opstelsporen, terminals, winkels en constructies te onderhouden die nodig zijn om treinen over een aangewezen deel van de spoorlijn te laten rijden. De divisie onderhield en exploiteerde ook de locomotieven en auto's. Professionele spoorwegen en legeringenieurs ontwierpen een spoorwegbataljon dat de functies van de civiele spoorwegdivisie weerspiegelde.

De missie van een spoorwegbataljon was het beheren en onderhouden van een aangewezen deel van een militaire spoorweg in een operatiegebied. In tegenstelling tot civiele spoorwegen moesten de bataljons echter ook voorbereid zijn om de lijn die ze exploiteerden te vernietigen. In het algemeen kon een spoorwegbataljon tussen de negentig en 250 mijl enkelsporige spoorweg onderhouden en exploiteren, hoewel het werkelijke verantwoordelijkheidsgebied in oorlogstijd afhing van de militaire situatie. Bij het uitvoeren van spoorwegoperaties in bevriende gebieden of bezet gebied, gebruikte het bataljon lokale civiele technische en bekwame spoorwegmedewerkers om zijn capaciteiten te vergroten, maar ze moesten onder toezicht staan ​​van militair personeel om zich te beschermen tegen mogelijke sabotage. Het vormde ook een uitdaging voor de Engelssprekende Amerikaanse soldaat-spoorders die niet altijd bekend waren met hoe andere landen hun spoorwegen exploiteerden.

De organisatie van een spoorwegbataljon liep parallel met een typisch legerbataljon met een hoofdkwartier en bedrijven met drie of vier letters. Elk bedrijf had een unieke organisatie met specifieke capaciteiten die overeenkomen met de organisatie van een civiele spoorwegafdeling. Het bedrijf op het hoofdkantoor stuurde treinen, voorraden en seinen. Bedrijf A gerepareerd en onderhouden spoor en bijbehorende apparatuur zoals wissels, bruggen, watertanks, signaalapparatuur en gebouwen. De compagnie had twee pelotons, één voor het onderhoud van bruggen en gebouwen en één om het spoor te behouden. Bedrijf B exploiteerde het roundhouse en repareerde en onderhield rollend materieel - locomotieven en auto's. Het had ook twee pelotons, een om locomotieven te repareren, de andere om auto's te repareren. Locomotieven en treinwagons werden niet aan het bataljon toegewezen, maar verplaatsten zich naar behoefte door het hele spoorwegsysteem. Company C was de grootste eenheid in het bataljon met twee pelotons, die elk vijfentwintig bemanningsleden hadden om treinen, werven en stations te bedienen in het verantwoordelijkheidsgebied van het bataljon. In delen van de wereld waar grote aantallen elektrische treinen rijden, zoals in Europa, kon een compagnie D aan het bataljon worden toegevoegd om het elektriciteitsnet in stand te houden.

Niet alleen weerspiegelde de bataljonsorganisatie de civiele spoorwegdivisie, de organisatietabel correleerde militaire posities met hun civiele tegenhangers. De bataljonscommandant, een luitenant-kolonel, was gelijk aan een divisiehoofd in een commerciële spoorweg. De compagniescommandanten, allemaal kapiteins, werden gelijkgesteld aan hun tegenhangers in de civiele spoorwegen: een divisie-ingenieur voerde het bevel over compagnie A, een machinist voerde het bevel over compagnie B en een machinist voerde het bevel over compagnie C. Pelotonleiders hadden vergelijkbare civiele specialiteiten. Veel van de aangeworven soldaten waren ervaren spoorwegmannen die in wezen dezelfde taken in het leger uitvoerden als in hun civiele beroepen. Terwijl de nadruk lag op spoorwegen, volgden de soldaten een basisgevechtstraining en de bataljons voerden allemaal disciplinaire, fysieke, gevechts- en technische training uit in overeenstemming met de toepasselijke legerhandleidingen.

Om officieren en manschappen voor de nieuwe bataljons te vinden en op te leiden, ontwikkelde het Corps of Engineers een Affiliation Plan waarbij commerciële spoorwegen in de Verenigde Staten specifieke eenheden in de MRS sponsorden. Volgens het plan nomineerde een handelsspoorweg officieren op basis van hun technische taken. Nadat ze een lichamelijk onderzoek hadden doorstaan, werden ze aangesteld als reserve-officieren in het leger en werden ze toegewezen aan passende posities in het bataljon dat door de spoorweg werd gesponsord om een ​​kader van professionele spoorwegmannen te leveren.

Het volgende hogere hoofdkwartier van een spoorwegbataljon was een grote spoorwegdivisie die overeenkwam met het kantoor van een algemene superintendent bij een civiele spoorweg en toezicht hield op de operaties van verschillende divisies. Een grote divisie omvatte meestal drie of vier operationele bataljons, een winkelbataljon en een basisdepotbedrijf. Winkelbataljons zorgden voor grote reparaties, constructie en revisie van apparatuur, terwijl het basisdepotbedrijf voor voorraden zorgde. Operaties met meer dan één grote divisie vestigden een MRS-hoofdkwartier.

Op 18 juni 1941 organiseerde het leger het 711th Railway Operating Battalion, het eerste in zijn soort, in Fort Belvoir, Virginia. In tegenstelling tot andere spoorwegbataljons, had het geen civiel bedrijf dat het sponsorde. De bedoeling was om officieren en manschappen door het bataljon te laten rouleren voor korte dienstreizen voor training. Officieren van tien verschillende Amerikaanse spoorwegen bemanden het bataljon, en een kader van achtentwintig manschappen kwam van het Engineer School Detachment in Fort Belvoir. Enkele honderden mannen met spoorwegervaring werden ook op de post toegewezen vanuit het Engineer Replacement Center. Binnen achtenveertig dagen na activering had het bataljon de lang verwaarloosde vier-en-een-halve mijl Quartermaster-spoorlijn die de post diende, gerehabiliteerd. Het werk omvatte het vervangen van duizenden banden, het repareren van verschillende bruggen en het installeren van twintig duikers. De volgende opdracht was wat uitdagender.

Het bataljon verhuisde in augustus 1941 naar Camp Claiborne, Louisiana, waar het begon te werken aan een trainingsfaciliteit voor spoorwegbataljons die voor actieve dienst werden geroepen. Het werk begon met gehuurd grondverzetmaterieel dat in de 711e door soldaten werd geëxploiteerd totdat legeruitrusting beschikbaar kwam. De eerste baan werd in september gelegd en in oktober arriveerden de 91e en 93d Geniebataljons, beide bemand door Afro-Amerikaanse soldaten, om te helpen met de constructie. Meer dan 6.000 troepen werkten aan de lijn. Tijdens de bouw van de spoorlijn werkten de 98e, 383d en 331e geniebataljons, evenals verschillende dumptruckbedrijven aan het project. Op 11 juli 1942 markeerde een "golden spike"-ceremonie de voltooiing van vijftig mijl van egalisering en het leggen van sporen tussen Camp Claiborne en Fort Polk. Bekend als de C&P-spoorweg voor Claiborne en Polk, noemden stagiairs het de "misdaad en straf" of de "slechtste spoorlijn op aarde" omdat het op onstabiele grond was gebouwd, waardoor ontsporingen gebruikelijk waren. Om de training realistischer te maken, werden de vijfentwintig bruggen langs de linie periodiek opgeblazen zodat onderhoudsteams van de bataljons in opleiding ze konden herbouwen. De C&P omvatte emplacementen aan elk uiteinde van de lijn en machinekamerfaciliteiten in Camp Claiborne. De telegraaf- en telefoonlijn die werd gebruikt om treinen te verzenden, werd aangelegd door het 26th Signal Construction Battalion. Het rollend materieel omvatte negen locomotieven die op olie branden en bijna 100 auto's, waaronder rijtuigen, gondels, gesloten goederenwagens, platte wagens, koelwagens en cabines.

Nadat de Verenigde Staten in december 1941 de Tweede Wereldoorlog waren binnengegaan, activeerde het leger extra operationele spoorwegbataljons onder het Affiliation Plan. In March 1942, the 727th Railway Operating Battalion, sponsored by the Southern Railway Company, became the first battalion to be activated after the war began, followed in April by the 713th, affiliated with the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company. Most of the officers and many of the enlisted men were experienced railroaders, but the new battalions included men drawn from Army training centers who needed to be trained. The newly organized battalions also had to learn how to operate efficiently as units, so the War Department contracted with commercial railroads to provide on-the-job training. For example, an Army train crew would accompany a train manned by civilians to learn operating rules and railroad techniques. The same procedure was followed for other specialties in the battalion with soldiers working alongside their civilian counterparts to learn the basics of railroading. The 713th trained on the Santa Fe line near Clovis, New Mexico, while the 727th went to Camp Shelby, Mississippi, to train on the Southern Railroad between Meridian, Mississippi, and New Orleans, Louisiana. When the 730th Railway Operating Battalion was activated in May, its sponsoring company, the Pennsylvania Railroad, trained the unit on its line near Fort Wayne, Indiana.

As the war effort increased, the War Department activated additional railway units including grand divisions to coordinate operations in overseas theaters of operations and shop battalions to support the operating battalions. In November 1942, the Transportation Corps assumed responsibility for the MRS. During World War II, the MRS operated in every theater of operations where there were American forces. At its peak, it included eleven grand divisions, thirty-three railway operating battalions, and eleven railway shop battalions. A variety of engineer, signal, and military police units provided support to the railroaders.

In September 1942, a detachment of men from the 713th and 727th Railway Operating Battalions became the first soldier railroaders to deploy outside the contiguous United States when they left Clovis, New Mexico, to assume operations of the White Pass and Yukon Railroad in Alaska. In November, the unit was designated the 770th Railway Operating Detachment. In December, two railway operating battalions deployed to theaters overseas. The 711th, which built the C&P Railroad in Louisiana, went to Iran while the 727th headed for North Africa.

The 711th Railway Operating Battalion arrived in Khorramshahr, Iran, a port city on the Persian Gulf, and began operations in January 1943 making up trains and moving them out of the port before taking responsibility for sections of the line. The 711th was joined by the 730th Railway Operating Battalion (Pennsylvania Railroad) and two shop battalions, the 754th (Southern Pacific Company) and 762d (American Locomotive Company, Baldwin Locomotive Company, Electro-Motive Corporation) Railway Shop Battalions. The 702d Railway Grand Division, staffed mainly by railroad men from the Union Pacific Railroad, coordinated the operations of the four battalions in operating the Iranian State Railway which carried three out of five tons of Lend-Lease material shipped to the Soviet Union through the Persian Corridor during World War II. Although the railway operating battalions were designed to operate ninety to 150 miles of line, in Iran the 711th operated 388 miles, and the 730th 289 miles. Creation of the 1st Provisional Railway Operating Battalion, later designated the 791st Railway Operating Battalion, by taking men from the battalions already in Iran plus personnel from other units in the command who had prewar railroad experience, helped reduce the distances. The new unit took over a 221-mile stretch of mountainous country, leaving the 711th with 258 miles and the 730th with 198, still more than the doctrinal guidelines.

During the time the MRS operated the Iranian State Railway, it handled more than four million long tons of freight. In addition to the freight, special passenger trains carried 16,000 Iranian military personnel, 14,000 Polish war refugees, 40,000 British troops, and 15,000 Russian ex-prisoners of war. During the Muslim holy days from 22 February to 21 April 1944, 21,000 pilgrims traveled on trains operated by the MRS. The last American soldier railroaders left Iran in July 1945.

When the Americans and British began planning for an invasion of North Africa, logisticians estimated that it would require thirty-four trains a day to move 5,000 tons a month from the ports of debarkation at Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers to keep Allied forces supplied. The MRS deployed five operating and two shop battalions to keep the required supplies moving. The first railway operating battalion, the 727th, arrived in Africa in December 1942. In January 1943, the 701st Railway Grand Division, sponsored by the New York Central Railroad, was activated at Fort Snelling, Minnesota. After a brief training period in St. Paul monitoring troop trains and studying car records and other documents in the Twin City terminals, the headquarters traveled by train to New York where it boarded the USS Orizaba as part of the Allied forces bound for North Africa. By May, the 701st was in Casablanca where it coordinated the work of three railway operating battalions, the 715th (Illinois Central Railroad), 719th (Texas and New Orleans Railroad Company), and 759th (Missouri Pacific Railroad).

Railroading in North Africa proved to be a challenge. Trains were operated by British, French, and American crews assisted by Arab civilians. With a variety of languages among the railroaders, the crew often used hand signals, although that was not always a solution. For example, the U.S. signal for “go” or “highball it” in railroad terms meant “stop!” in the French system used in North Africa. Another quirk was that French locomotives in North Africa did not have seats for engineers or firemen as American ones did, so crews had to stand for hours on end while they were underway.

In spite of the difficulties, the MRS was moving about 90,000 tons of freight a week by June 1943. At its peak the MRS operated 1,905 miles of railway in North Africa. General Dwight D. Eisenhower, impressed with the work of the soldier-railroaders, wrote that “When we went into North Africa the railway could deliver a maximum of 900 tons of supplies…Yankee energy and modern American methods of operation…increased the daily tonnage to 3000.”

After freeing North Africa from German occupation the Allies’ next move was to Sicily, and MRS personnel went with them. Three days after the initial landings on 10 July 1943 the 727th Railway Operating Battalion went ashore at Licata, Sicily, and immediately began work on the Sicilian railway. Lieutenant General George S. Patton, Jr. later wrote that the battalion “organized national rail workers, located equipment, had steam up, and made a reconnaissance of the rail lines four hours after landing.” In its first twenty-four hours of operations, the 727th moved 400 tons of supplies forward to the 3d Infantry Division. By the third day it was moving 800 tons. During the campaign in Sicily, the 727th operated 1,373 miles of railway using 300 locomotives and 3,500 freight cars that carried an average of 3,400 tons a day to supply Seventh Army.

On 9 September 1943, the Allies made their first landing on the European mainland at Salerno, Italy. After encountering heavy German resistance, they spent the rest of the month building up men and supplies in the beachhead in preparation for an offensive to capture the port city of Naples. Three days after the first Allied troops entered Naples, the advance party of the 703d Railway Grand Division (Atlantic Coast Railroad Company) reached the port only to find that the combination of Allied bombing and German demolition had left the rail yard in shambles. Technical Sergeant Louis L. Russel of the 713th Railway Operating Battalion described the scene on Wednesday 6 October: “Charred and twisted cars were strewn around haphazardly, with lengths of rail cross ties still attached, pointing toward the sky.” It was a mess, but the next day, First Lieutenant R.H. Anderson, a yardmaster from Newton, Kansas, was optimistic when he said, “I believe we can get a train out of this by Sunday.” With everybody in the battalion, including conductors, engineers, and firemen working to clear the debris, Anderson proved correct. On Saturday, a test train consisting of an old Italian locomotive pushing five cars moved four miles out of the yard. Four days later, six trains moving an average of 450 tons each, rolled to the forward railhead.

With the rail yard back in operation, Naples became the primary port for supplying Fifth Army. From January through September 1944, an average of 136,567 tons of freight a month moved out of Naples by rail. By July 1944, all of the MRS troops that had been in North Africa were in Italy operating 2,478 miles of railway with an average of 250 military trains a day in addition to civilian passenger and freight service. Fifth Army commander Lieutenant General Mark Clark recognized the contributions of the soldier-railroaders in Italy when he presented them with a plaque in 1944 that read in part: “The services performed by the Allied Force Military Railway Service have contributed materially to the military operation of the Fifth Army.”

At the same time Allied forces were fighting in North Africa and Italy, they began to build up forces in England for an invasion of France. In July 1942, the MRS organized the 761st Transportation Company at Camp Shelby, Mississippi, with men taken from the 713th, 727th, and 730th Railway Operating Battalions. In September, the company deployed to Scotland where it operated the Melbourne Military Railway and provided switching service to depots being established by American forces. The first railway operating battalion to arrive in England was the 729th (New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad Company) in July 1943. By June 1944, when Allied forces landed at Normandy, the MRS had two grand divisions, three operating battalions, and four shop battalions in England. While in England, the American railroaders conducted technical training, prepared American steam and diesel locomotives for use on the continent, and assembled prefabricated railcars shipped from the United States. They also operated sections of the British rail system that carried American troops and supplies.

As in Italy, railroads and yards were prime targets for Allied bombers in the months before the landings in Normandy, France. Two years of bombing raids had destroyed railroad facilities and twisted tracks into extraordinary shapes. Eleven days after the Allies landed on 6 June 1944, a small detachment of MRS troops arrived to assess the railroad facilities in the beachhead, estimate damage to rails and yards, and locate available locomotives. Using a Jeep equipped with flanged wheels, the detachment surveyed the lines from the landing area to the port of Cherbourg. On 2 July, the 729th Railway Operating Battalion arrived in Normandy and took over operations at the Cherbourg terminals. Assisted by French engine crews and volunteers, the American railroaders repaired roundhouses, shop buildings, engines, and rolling stock while Army engineers cleared the rail line from Cherbourg to Carentan. Nine days after arriving in France, the 729th operated the first passenger train between the two cities.

The 720th Railway Operating Battalion (Chicago and North Western Railway) arrived in France on 15 July and began to rehabilitate and operate approximately sixty-two miles of track between Bayeux and Lisieux. Three days later, the 757th Railway Shop Battalion (Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad) went to work at Cherbourg. In August, another three operating battalions and two more shop battalions arrived. By the end of the month, the MRS was operating 1,006 miles of track and had carried 29,450 passengers on 251 trains and moved 136,169 tons of military freight on 991 trains.

On 15 August, the Allies landed in southern France. One of the goals of that operation was to open the ports of Toulon and Marseilles and establish a southern line of communications to augment the flow of equipment and supplies to the Allied armies in Europe. MRS troops supporting the operation came from Italy. Two of the most experienced operating battalions, the 713th and 727th, deployed to Marseilles and began operations at the end of August. Unlike the situations in Italy and northern France, the ports were not heavily damaged by Allied bombing or German demolitions. In October, the MRS operated 1,897 trains hauling 640,561 tons of freight in support of the Sixth Army Group. General Jacob Devers, commanding the army group, commended MRS troops when he wrote: “I want to send my congratulations to you and your splendid achievement in opening and maintaining the railroad system in southern France since the invasion of our forces.”

Grand divisions, operating battalions, and shop battalions continued to deploy to both northern and southern France to support the Allied forces rolling into Germany. As new battalions arrived, the ones already on the continent moved forward behind the advancing armies. In March 1945, the 729th, the first operating battalion to arrive in France, began transporting rail and construction material to Army engineers building a bridge over the Rhine River at Wesel, Germany. On 9 April, the 720th operated the first train across the new bridge. In its first thirty days of operation, 273,141 tons of freight moved east across the bridge while another 403,656 tons and 309,000 displaced persons moved west.

In May 1945, when the war in Europe ended, the MRS included seven grand divisions, twenty-four operating battalions, seven shop battalions, and a variety of depot and maintenance units as well as eight battalions and two separate companies of military police. Between D-Day at Normandy and V-E Day, MRS loaded and moved more than eighteen million tons of military freight. On 7 June 1945, American railroaders were operating 1,937 locomotives, 34,588 freight cars, and 25,150 miles of track in western Europe. Demobilization of railway units began shortly after V-E Day. The largest contingent of American soldier railroaders was in western Europe with more than 26,600 officers and enlisted men serving there by the end of the war. The last MRS unit, the 716th Railway Operating Battalion (Southern Pacific Company) left Europe in February 1946.

In addition to Europe and North Africa, MRS units operated railroads in India, Burma, and the Philippine Islands. Railway units in India supported construction of the Ledo Road and the airfield used for the airlift over the Himalaya Mountains that provided logistical support to the Chinese. They also supported British and the American forces fighting the Japanese in Burma. The 705th Railway Grand Division (Southern Pacific Company) oversaw military rail operations in India and Burma. The division, along with five railway operating battalions, the 721st (New York Central Railroad), 725th (Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad Company), 726th (Wabash Railroad Company), 745th (Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad), and 748th (Texas and Pacific Railway company) all sailed from Los Angeles aboard the SS Mariposa in December 1943. After thirty-one days at sea they arrived at Bombay, India, in January 1944 to begin operation of sections of the Bengal and Assam Railway.

In India, each of the five operating battalions managed an average of 133 miles of railway. By implementing American techniques, the tonnage carried by the Bengal and Assam Railway increased forty-six percent in the first twenty-six days after the MRS took over. Compared to American railroads, the Indian system was relatively primitive. A unique aspect of railroading in India was the use of elephants to switch cars when locomotives were not available. India also had little in the way of telegraph, telephone, or signal communications. American railroaders installed modern communications equipment to coordinate the increased train movements. They also added 100 miles of double track to facilitate traffic flow. The improvements paid off. Between February 1944 and September 1945, the MRS moved 6,217,143 tons of freight and operated 5,559 passenger trains. The last American railway units left India in October 1945.

There were no requirements for railway units in the Pacific Theater until the Allies reached the Philippine Islands in late 1944. Shortly after the amphibious landings on the island of Luzon in January 1945, a company of MRS troops arrived on the island and began to rehabilitate the rail lines so they could operate the Manila Railway Company. The railroad was in terrible condition due to lack of maintenance, American bombing, and Japanese destruction. While Army engineers rebuilt bridges along the rail line, railway troops repaired locomotives and railcars. The Manila Railway Company had about 712 miles of track on Luzon, but the American forces used only 234 of them designated the Luzon Military Railway. The first train on the line ran on 19 January for a distance of about thirty miles. Because there was no coal the locomotives burned driftwood, pulpwood, and coconut hulls.

Railway supplies began to reach Luzon in February, including locomotives, cars, shop machines, and track material. Eventually fifty-three American-built locomotives and 990 cars reached the island. Several mobile railway workshops deployed to Luzon in March, and in April, two operating battalions, the 737th (New York Central) and the 749th (New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad Company) arrived to operate sections of the Luzon Military Railway. By October, MRS troops in the Philippines reached its peak strength of 3,200 officers and enlisted men and 6,010 civilians. Between 1 June and 31 December, they operated a total of 7,410 trains with 48,131 cars. The Army returned control of the Luzon Military Railway back to the Manila Railway Company on 1 January 1946, and the last MRS personnel left the Philippines three months later.

The Military Railway Service was a remarkable team effort made possible by the Affiliation Program the Army and American railroaders developed in the 1930s and implemented as the clouds of global war appeared on the horizon. During World War II the service operated and maintained railroads in Europe, North Africa, Asia, and the Pacific that totaled more than 22,000 miles. Some 43,500 soldier-railroaders, most of whom brought years of experience with them, served in the Army in every theater of operations moving personnel and freight, often under enemy fire and through extreme weather conditions. Their efforts proved vital to the Allied victory.


2000-present day

Metros and monorails are thriving within cities. Online ticketing system started in 2000’s and is one of the major ways of booking train ticket, today. 4.5 billion km was additionally covered in just ten years (2001-2010). Now, the train tracks cover more than 120,000 km of area in India and special amenities like Wi-Fi, customer information system, ergogenic designs and green technologies have taken Indian Railways to the next level.

Recent developments of railway system include technological amenities in unreserved class, high horsepower electric locomotive, GPS based passenger information system, sliding doors, private catering services and many others. (Source)

There is always a next step for Indian Railway. By 2019, more than 7000 stations around the world would receive free Wi-Fi service. The technology team is diving deep into finding greener source of powers.


Wheelchairs

Most, if not all, TGV trains have dedicated spaces for wheelchairs, however, they are all located in the first class cars. But fear not, the price is that of second class, so you’ll not be paying extra to travel with a wheelchair. There’s even space for 2 fellow travellers, and the wheelchair area is located close to the wheelchair-accessible toilets.

Almost all stations in France are now fully equipped to accommodate wheelchairs, including ramps and elevators. But it’s important and highly recommendable that you notify the railroad that you are planning to travel with a wheelchair.


North Railway of France - History

  • 600 - The colony of Massalia is founded by the Ancient Greeks. This would later become the city of Marseille, the oldest city in France.
  • 400 - Celtic tribes begin to settle in the region.
  • 122 - Southeastern France (called Provence) is taken over by the Roman Republic.
  • 52 - Julius Caesar conquers Gaul (most of modern day France).




The Storming of the Bastille


Napoleon is Defeated in Russia

Brief Overview of the History of France

The land that today makes up the country of France has been settled for thousands of years. In 600 BC, a portion of the Greek Empire settled in Southern France and founded the city that is today Marseille, the oldest city in France. At the same time, Celtic Gauls were becoming prominent in other areas of France. The Gauls would sack the city of Rome in 390 BC. Later, the Romans would conquer Gaul and the area would become a productive part of the Roman Empire until the 4th century.


In the 4th century, the Franks, which is where the name France comes from, began to take power. In 768 Charlemagne united the Franks and began to expand the kingdom. He was named the Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope and is today considered the founder of both the French and German monarchies. The French monarchy would continue to be a great power in Europe for the next 1000 years.

In 1792, the French Republic was proclaimed by the French Revolution. This didn't last long, however, as Napoleon grabbed power and made himself Emperor. He then proceeded to conquer most of Europe. Napoleon was later defeated and in 1870 the Third Republic was declared.

France suffered greatly in both World War I and World War II. During World War II France was defeated and occupied by the Germans. Allied forces liberated the country in 1944 after four years of German rule. A new constitution was set up by Charles de Gaulle and the Fourth Republic was formed.


“Cock o’ the North”

COMPETITION is always stimulating. There is no question that the competition of other forms of transport has stirred the locomotive engineers considerably. Diesel rail- cars, for example, have established a new mode of high speed transport on rails. Electrification, where traffic conditions are sufficiently dense to warrant the heavy expenditure involved, has been carried out on an extensive scale. Competition from outside the railways, on the roads, and in the air has to be fought unceasingly.

But “King Coal” is determined to hold his own. On a thermal efficiency basis the steam locomotive of traditional design does not rank very high. Even in the best conditions, not much more than seven per cent of the heat units developed by the burning of the coal on the locomotive fire- grate is turned into useful work in moving the locomotive and its train.

There are, as previously explained, many reasons to account for this figure. The use of the exhaust steam to furnish a draught for the fire necessarily means that power for the purpose must be thrown to waste out of the chimney, whereas in a stationary power- station the steam would be condensed, and its heat, at least, would be trapped. Similarly the limitations imposed in length and diameter on the locomotive boiler involve the loss up the chimney of much of the heat from the fire.

Some years ago the locomotive engineers of the Paris- Orleans Railway of France made an exhaustive study of all the features of locomotive design which have a bearing on efficiency. Their study concentrated on the “flow” of the steam from the time it left the boiler until the moment of its rejection, as exhaust, from the chimney. It was realized that much could be done by the use of larger and more direct steam- pipes and passages, and of improved inlet and exhaust valves to the cylinders, to facilitate that flow. Measures could also be taken to speed up the circulation of the water in the boiler, and this would increase the capacity to raise steam.

An existing “Pacific” locomotive was rebuilt in the Paris- Orleans workshops at Tours to embody the results of this research. The effect was startling. The reconditioned engine, though weighing no more than one of the London and North Eastern “Pacifics”, created new standards of combined speed and weight haulage on what was already a very speedy line. It was proved that trains weighing over 800 tons could be hauled not merely to scheduled time but well within it.

HERALD OF A NEW ORDER. The striking appearance of the great LNER locomotive is indicative of the revolutionary changes in design that she embodies. The “Cock o’ the North” was the first eight- coupled locomotive built for express passenger service in Great Britain.

A series of these earlier “Pacifics” was reconditioned, and the next experiment was to convert another “Pacific” to the 4- 8- 0 wheel arrangement, with a similar boiler, cylinders, and valves, for working over the extremely difficult route through Central France from Vierzon (to which point the trains are worked electrically from Paris) to Toulouse. Again the results were successful.

These developments attracted attention all over France. Other French railways followed suit, and as some of the Paris- Orleans steam locomotive stock was becoming superfluous, owing to the extension of main line electrification from Paris to Tours as well as Vierzon, the Paris- Orleans rebuilt many more of its “Pacifics” for transfer to the Nord and the Est Companies. The news of these Paris- Orleans transformations spread to England when the London and North Eastern Railway was about to build new locomotives for service over the heavily- graded east coast main line between Edinburgh and Aberdeen.

This is one of the most difficult main routes, from the locomotive point of view, in Great Britain. Gradients as steep as 1 in 70 abound. There are also numerous sharp curves demanding reductions of speed, most of them at the beginning of long adverse gradients so that the drivers are compelled to slow down severely just when they are in most need of the impetus for the climb that follows.

THE LEADING DIMENSIONS of this 110- ton locomotive, as given in these diagrams were supplied by the courtesy of the LNER Chief Mechanical Engineer’s Department.

From Inverkeithing, for example, after slowing round the curve to twenty miles an hour, drivers of south- bound trains have an ascent for two miles at 1 in 70 on to the Forth Bridge, and north- bound trains face a similar, though shorter, grade up to Dalgetty.

From every intermediate stop, also, the trains have to accelerate up steep gradients, in some cases, indeed - as in both directions from Arbroath and Montrose, and southwards from Aberdeen - long and arduous climbs. The consequence has been that most of the heavy modern East Coast expresses have needed “double- heading” - that is, the provision of an assistant locomotive - over this section. The new type of engine had to be sufficiently powerful to obviate this.

It was decided that to give an increased tractive force to enable the engines to get away more rapidly from these frequent stops and slowings, and also to move these heavy trains at higher speeds up the banks, the driving wheels should be reduced in diameter from the 6 ft 8 in of the “Pacifics” to 6 ft 2 in, and the diameter of the cylinders increased from the 19 in of the high- pressure “Pacifics” to 21 in. The next essential was to provide greater adhesion, so that this increased power might be transmitted to the rails without slipping, and the decision was made to use eight- coupled instead of six- coupled driving wheels.

These points are important, as “Cock o’ the North” was not designed, as has been widely supposed, for high- speed long- distance running, but for the difficult conditions of the Edinburgh- Aberdeen route. It was the first eight- coupled locomotive built for express passenger service in Great Britain.

However desirable it might have been to provide the engine with a leading four- wheeled bogie, the increased length would have made it necessary to replace the turntables along the route by tables of larger diameter. It was not thought necessary to incur this additional expense, and the locomotive was therefore designed, like the “Moguls”, with a two- wheeled radial truck at the leading end. Another pair of wheels at the rear end carries the immense firebox, and the wheel arrangement of the engine is thus the 2- 8- 2, or “ikado” type, as it is generally known.

Examination of the internal economy of the “Cock o’ the North” shows that the designer of this notable locomotive - Mr. H. N. Gresley, the Chief Mechanical Engineer of the LNER, - has adapted to British conditions certain of the principles which proved so effective on the Paris- Orleans Railway, and has incorporated them in the engine.

THE TENDER contains an automatic water pickup apparatus (shown dotted) to the left of the coal- space.

HEAD- ON DIMENSIONS should be compared with the fine view of this locomotive shown below.

The fine sectional picture of the engine, which appears below, reveals what a mass of detail has been crowded within the smooth external casing of the locomotive. It also shows the difficulties experienced by the designer of the modern locomotive in compressing, within the narrow limits of the British loading gauge, all the working parts of an engine capable of exerting over 2,000 hp on the draw- bar of it train.

The magnificent centre- spread to this photogravure supplement: a fine broadside photograph of No.2001 and a corresponding sectioned cut- away drawing of the locomotive. In addition to the explanatory tabs, there are a further 52 numbered items, each identified by the key in the top right hand corner of the centre- spread.

At a working pressure of 220 lb per sq in, steam passes from the boiler through a series of long narrow slots up into a cavity of pressed steel, which has been riveted on to the top of the boiler at the rear of the dome. From the regulator the steam passes into a main steam- pipe having the unusually large diameter of 7 in. The next stage of its journey is through a 43- element superheater, from which it is led down to the cylinders.

Large poppet- valves of 8- in diameter admit the steam to the cylinders, and 9- in valves are provided for the exhaust the valves are worked by a rotary cam arrangement, instead of the ordinary Walschaerts valve- motion.

The last stage of the journey of the steam is into a blast pipe which branches into two, leading up to a double chimney which has three telescopic sections from the bottom to the top, and is known as the “K.C.” blast- pipe, after its designer, Monsieur K. Chapelon [ sic ], of the Paris- Orleans Railway.

All these arrangements so facilitate the passage of the steam that the engine is capable of doing high- speed work with heavy trains at no more than ten per cent cut- off - that is to say, steam is admitted for one- tenth of the stroke only, and for the remaining nine- tenths does its work by expansion.

FACTS AND FIGURES OF THE “COCK O' THE NORTH”. Cylinders (three) diameter 21in stroke 26 in. Driving wheels, diameter 6 ft 2 in. Heating surface, tubes and flues, 2,477 sq ft firebox, 237 sq ft superheater, 776.5 sq ft total, 3,490.5 sq ft. Firegrate area, 50 sq ft. Working pressure, per sq in, 220 lb. Tractive effort (at 85 per cent working pressure), 43,460 lb. Adhesion weight, 80½ tons. Weight of engine (in working order) 110¼ tons. Coal capacity of tender, 8 tons. Water, 5,000 gals. Weight of engine and tender, 165½ tons. Length of engine and tender (overall), 73 ft 8½ in.

One result of this ultra- short cut- off working is that the pressure at which the steam is finally exhausted is very low, and there would be a tendency for it to drift along the top level of the boiler and obscure the front windows of the driver’s cab, were special precautions not taken to prevent this. It is here that the external casing at the front end of the engine, with its wings on either side of the smoke- box, serves both as streamlining and also to make a strong up- current of ail when the engine is running at speed, which lifts the exhaust steam from the double chimney, and carries it well clear of the cab.

The cab- front also is V- shaped, to assist in the streamlining effect, but, despite the enormous size of the boiler, there is an excellent look- out ahead. Inside the external boiler casing there is found another aid to efficiency in the feed- water heater, of the A.C.F.I. type, which uses some of the exhaust steam in order to heat up the feed- water on its way from the tender into the boiler. This means that less heat is required inside the boiler to convert the feed- water into steam.

A novelty is provided in the shape of a chime whistle in front of the chimney, which was the only convenient place in which it could be put. The tender is of the standard LNER eight- wheeled type. “Cock o’ the North” is the heaviest locomotive built, up to the time of writing, for passenger service in Great Britain, and weighs 110¼ tons in running trim with the tender the total weight is 165½ tons.

Shortly after the “Cock o’ the North” had emerged from Doncaster Works, a test run was made, with a train weighing 650 tons, from King’s Cross to Barkstone, just beyond Grantham, and back. The long gradient to Stoke Summit, partly at 1 in 200 and partly at 1 in 178, was surmounted at an average speed of a mile- a- minute for the whole distance, and without speed at any time falling below 56 miles an hour. The engine developed at the draw- bar the hitherto unprecedented figure for Great Britain of 2,090 hp.

Whether we like it or not, locomotive fashions are fast altering. Both internally and externally revolutionary changes are being made, and from recent developments - of which the “Cock o’ the North” is only one example - it is clear that we must accustom ourselves to locomotives unlike those which have become familiar.

Those who lament the radical external changes in locomotive design sometimes forget that higher and even higher speeds are being called for in this hurrying age. The greater the speed the more potent is the resistance of the air through which the vehicle passes. Streamlining has become essential for all vehicles designed for rapid motion, and we must expect, therefore, that streamlining should be extended to the steam locomotives of the future. It is not the aim of the designer merely to obtain higher speeds. If he can lessen the resistance at high speeds coal consumption will be reduced, and efficiency will be increased proportionately. The “Cock o’ the North” is one of the heralds of the new order of things in the locomotive world.

FROM THE FRONT the feature of the “Cock o’ the North” that chiefly interests the layman is the pair of side- plates, curving upwards to form “shoulders”. The object of these side- plates is to aid visibility from the cab- windows when the engine is running. Owing to the shape of the side- plates a strong current of air sweeps upwards, carrying the exhaust steam and smoke with it clear of the cab- windows.


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